Heritage Museums
of the
Coteau des Prairies
SissetonSouth Dakota

Overview
Climb to the top of Nicollet Tower for a breathtaking view of three states. The observation tower honors Joseph N. Nicollet, the French mapmaker who explored the Coteau Des Prairies in the 1830's.

The Nicollett Interpretive Center displays John S. Wilson artwork and Nicollet's great map. A video presentation illustrates Nicollet's expedition and describes the culture of the Dakota tribes.
Joseph N. Nicollet
1786 - 1843
Biographical summary
By Martha Coleman Bray
author of "Joseph N. Nicollet and His Map"

Joseph Nicolas Nicollet was born on July 29, 1786, in the mountain village of Cluses in the alpine province of Savoy, France. His family was well established but had lost much when the French Revolutionary troops invaded Savoy in 1792. Young Joseph, described as having ''lively eyes," was a promising student whose gift for mathematics earned him a scholarship at the Jesuit college in Chambery. During the era of Napoleon, Nicollet was appointed professor and astronomer at the Royal Observatory in Paris where he soon made his reputation both in astronomy and what was then called ''physical geography." He discovered a comet and was involved not only in mapping, but in all the studies of the planet earth.
His promising career, however, was cruelly blocked by the turbulent politics of France before the revolution of 1830 and by another revolution in science - the introduction of the new laboratory science of physics which would dominate the next century. In 1832, disappointed by the loss of honors he deserved and hurt by financial reverses beyond his control (a sadness of which he never spoke of again), he sailed, alone and penniless, from the port of Brest for the United States where his talents and knowledge were needed. He came with the bold, but unformed, plan of mapping the great valley of the Mississippi River.

Although thirty years had passed since Lewis and Clark had reached the Pacific Ocean, the vast country beyond the Mississippi was still waiting to be mapped. The coastal waters had not been surveyed and even the location of Washington, D.C. had not yet been accurately determined.
 
When Nicollet arrived in Washington, he was 46 year- old. Far from the stereotype of a frontier explorer, he was slightly built, a lively and sociable man, fond of music and a welcome guest wherever he went. Although he had no money, his reputation brought him help from many scientists, who, like himself, had come to the New World to seek a challenge and a future denied to them in the old.
 
Because of cholera on the steam boats, he could not reach St. Louis. The next four years were spent traveling from Baltimore to New Orleans, where he was received by hospitable French citizens who had fled the recent slave uprising in present-day Haiti. These years were an integral part of his work on the plains and prairies and an interesting chapter of American history, but now we must follow him at last to St. Louis, the ''Queen City'' of the West.
 
In St. Louis, the "Queen City" of the West, he gained the support for his plan from the American Fur Company and set off, finally, up the big river to Fort Snelling in Minnesota. The fort's commandant, Major Taliaferro, became his friend but was persuaded, it seems, by his wife to set this determined Frenchman on his way to the headwaters of the Mississippi River.
 
On July 29, 1836, he set out in a canoe, accompanied only by an Ojibway chief named Chagobay, his nine-year-old son and a half-French guide named Brunia. While making difficult computations at night, he wrote with poetic feeling and often humor of his adventures and his fondness for the Ojibway families. His enduring friendship with Chagobay marked the beginning of his unique rapport with Native Americans.
 
He spent the winter at Fort Snelling where, through Chagobay, he was able to observe and record ceremonies to which no other white man had been admitted. He completed his map which corrected a very serious error made by Zebulon Pike in 1805. That error placed the mouth of the Crow Wing River too far to the west, making all western maps inaccurate. Thus, on his return to Washington, he was appointed to lead the newly formed Corps of Topographical Engineers in an expedition to map the land between the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. All western maps would depend on this.
 
Nicollet was offered a military escort for this expedition, but he refused, accepting only 23-year-old John Charles Fremont, later of Rocky Mountain fame, as his assistant. The party set out on July 9, 1838, from Traverse des Sioux escorted by Joseph Renville, Jr. This was significant as Nicollet's whole enterprise depended upon the hospitality of the senior Renville, who might dictate its success or failure from his trading post at Lac qui Parle. Many descendants of Renville still live in the land around the Nicollet Tower. The guide was Joseph LaFromboise, a half French, half Native American agent for the American Fur Company. On the Fourth of July, Nicollet and his party carved their initials on a rock at the Pipestone Quarry, now a national park. Here he pursued his interest in Native myths by listening to ''the old ones”.
On July 11, 1839, Nicollet and Fremont set out on a second expedition from Fort Pierre (South Dakota) to Devils Lake (North Dakota) and back along the Coteau des Prairies to the spot very near where the Nicollet Tower stands today. One of the murals on the wall of the Interpretive Center depicts a significant meeting between Nicollet and the chief of the Yanktons, Wanatan. The guide of this expedition was Louison Freniere, who also has many descendants still living in this area.
 
On September 11, 1839, Nicollet left the prairies with regret. Already an ill man, he died before his report to the Senate was published in 1843. His interest in the watersheds of this district was far ahead of his time and his map was among the first in the world to depict by hachuring the heights of land, measured painstakingly with the barometer. His map is also our only source for many of the original Native American placenames we cherish today. This tower was built with the cooperation of the Dakota people.

Joseph N. Nicollet Tower and Interpretive Center
A book about 19th-century explorer Joseph N. Nicollet, published in 1976 by the Minnesota Historical Society Press, sparked a dream that was fulfilled Oct.5, 1991, with the dedication of the Nicollet Tower and adjacent interpretive center on the Coteau des Prairies, near Sisseton.
 
Harold L. Torness, a banker and lifelong resident of the northeastern South Dakota town of Sisseton, was so fascinated by the book Joseph N. Nicollet on the Plains and Prairies: The Expeditions of 1838-39 with Journals, Letters, and Notes on the Dakota Indians that he spearheaded a $335-thousand fund-raising campaign to build a monument to the explorer. In a breathtaking view from the top of the tower, visitors can see the states of South Dakota, North Dakota, and Minnesota, six counties, 11 communities and the Continental Divide. An adjacent 2,400-square-foot interpretive center has displays and classroom space.
 
In the 1960's and '70's Martha C. Bray and Edmund C. Bray of St. Paul, MN translated and edited the detailed journals of Nicollet, which were written in French. In 1976, the Minnesota Historical Society Press published their book Joseph N. Nicollet on the Plains and Prairies.
Upon readingthe book, Torness became captivated by the man who mapped and named the regions he knew so well. Torness was particularly struck that Nicollet referred to the Coteau des Prairies hills area  as the highlight of his exploration and proclaimed the valley as viewed from the hills: ''magnificent and indescribably beautiful.”
 
 
Alan Woolworth, a Minnesota Historical Society research fellow and Indian history scholar, advised Torness on the project. ''I’m just amazed with the speed at which this moved ahead and how all the community groups that shared an interest in it really pulled together,'' he said during an interview. ''This project became a focal point for Indians and whites to work together and continue to do so. In addition to honoring Nicollet's work and interpreting Indian history, the tower provides a tremendous view of the Coteau des Prairies.''
 
In the early 1840s, Nicollet published the first accurate map of the U.S. interior, which became the basis for all subsequent maps of this area until the era of modern surveys. Nicollet named many of the places he identified on the map with the names used by Dakota Indians in recognition of their invaluable assistance during the explorations.
 
''Nicollet had an overwhelming human appeal to him, and he had a great empathy for the Indian and their culture,” Woolworth said. ''He had a great interest in Indian place names and in preserving them on his map. In 1964, Woolworth found the original engraved copper plates for the 1843 version of Nicollet's famous map at the Lakes Survey in Detroit, Mich. The Minnesota Historical Society Press then published the map, titled Hydrographical Basin of the Upper Mississippi River.
 
With the help of Andre Fertey, who translated Nicollet's 1836-37 journals, Martha Bray edited The Journals of Joseph N. Nicollet: A Scientist on the Mississippi Headwaters With Notes on Indian Life, 1836-37 Published in 1970 by the Minnesota Historical Society Press.
 
We invite you to see the Nicollet Tower and Interpretive Center which contains the Great Nicollet Map, 10 murals by John S. Wilson, and the film “Dakota Encounters”. From the tower you can see the spectacular view of the Continental Divide, the Coteau des Prairies and the ancient glacial valley.
History of Construction
The following information was taken from the construction video of the conversation between John Rasmussen and Kenneth Johnson, the foreman of Kyburz-Carlson Construction of Aberdeen:

The Nicollet Tower Construction
  • Cement pillars are 18 feet into the ground with approximately four feet above the ground. The width of each pillar is 36 inches with anchoring straps placed two feet into the cement. The footings each took one five-yard load of cement.
  • The poles are Douglas fir that were shipped here from Idaho by truck. Each pole is approximately 75 feet long and weights 5,000 pounds. They are 70 to 80 years old. The poles were notched to fit the angle straps. Twenty-four inch bolts each one-inch in diameter were used. There are six bolts in each pole. A 19-inch bit was used to drill half way through each pole, then they drilled from the opposite direction. It took one and a half hours to set each pole on a calm day, Poles were tied at about 60 feet to be pulled into place by the crane. Poles were left flat on the bottom and then were grouted to fill in crack at base. Each pole has guide wires for stability. Each pole has 80 feet of guide wire per pole. The center pole has four guide wires and the outer poles have two.
  • Scaffolding was set up 40 feet. After first platform was constructed they could scaffold up from there. A lot of heavy treated wood was used. There is a total of 6,500 pounds of bolts and steel in the structure and there are NO NAILS. There are 96 steps to the top. The tower is 80 feet high at the peak. Each floor is 20 feet above the other.
  • A similar tower is located in Galena, Illinois, overlooking an unglaciated valley called the "driftless area.''
  • The tower and interpretive center were built at the same time. Construction dates were May 1991 to June 1992 with the dedication taking place in October bf 199I.
The Interpretive Center Construction
  • Local native Clarence Herges of Aberdeen was the architect who donated the plans.
    Construction was by Kyburz-Calrson Construction of Aberdeen, SD.
  • Footings were dug by backhoe June 1991 and the forms set.

  • There is 2,400 square feet of space in the building. It took one week to build the exterior walls, which are a rough finish block. This type of design took three times longer than a square building.
  • The laminated beams are set on the back wall and rest on on columns at the front of the building. The roof is made of heavy plywood, a heavy rubber skin and washed oversize rock.

  • Cost of the project was over $335,000. There were no federal, state or county funds used for this project. This was all accomplished with donations by seven interested persons, all over 70 years of age.

  • The building may be reserved for appropriate meetings for a fee. Please contact the board of Directors for the Heritage Museum, PO Box 215, Sisseton, SD 57262.

Map
Nicollet's Expeditions 1836-1839
Map drawn by Alan Ominsky
Visit Us
Hours
Open mid May through mid October 10am - 5pm, Monday - Friday
Open Sunday 1- 4pm

Admission
Admission is free to the Joseph N. Nicollet Tower

Location
Joseph N. Nicollet Tower and Interpretive Center
45352 SD Highway 10
PO Box 215
Sisseton, SD 57262
View Map
Galleries
Wilson Murals
A collection of hand-painted murals on the walls of the Interpretive Center.

Tower Views
Panoramic views from the top of Nicollet Tower.